Ep. 673: How to See Satellites (or Avoid Seeing Them)

If you’re in dark skies and look up, you’re certain to see a satellite. Lots of them. But how can you know which one you’re seeing, and how can you improve your chances of a sighting? Today we’ll talk about how to see satellites, or avoid seeing them.

Transcript

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Fraser Cain [00:01:42] Astronomy Cast Episode 673. How to see satellites or avoid them. Welcome to Astronomy Cast, your weekly facts based journey through the cosmos. We help you understand not only what we know, but how we know what we don’t. I’m Fraser Cain, the publisher of Universe Today. With me is Doctor Pamela Gay, a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the director of Cosmic Quest. What are you doing? 

Pamela Gay [00:02:02] I am doing well, I. I appear to be spending my day amused at the antics of artificial intelligence, and I feel like I need to do a PSA that if you have that new Samsung phone with the 100 X and you taken imaging for the moon, it’s not actually the moon that you photographed. It’s it’s. Well, you did photograph the moon and now it’s giving you somebody else’s picture of the moon because that’s how Samsung’s AI is rocking. 

Fraser Cain [00:02:30] Now is that true? Yeah, because I’ve. 

Pamela Gay [00:02:34] Heard I’ve. 

Fraser Cain [00:02:35] Heard that that confirmation is also suspect. So like like press photos sharing to show what the moon looks like. I mean, the impression I get is that it’s doing I upscaling on your pictures, so might just be somebody else’s picture, but it is attempting to upscale the picture that you’ve taken. 

Pamela Gay [00:02:57] So the the test that was done, I was someone downloaded a picture of the moon, degraded it, blurred it out and displayed it on a monitor, and then took a picture of what they displayed on the monitor. And the phone came back with something that was, containing information that was not in the original picture. 

Fraser Cain [00:03:21] Yeah, that sounds like upscale AI upscaling to me. In my. And they do that. I mean they smooth out your image. They smooth out your picture. 

Pamela Gay [00:03:30] Within an added resolution. 

Fraser Cain [00:03:32] Yeah. Yeah. That’s that’s what the upscaling is right for. It’s Photoshop. So that’s my like people want better pictures and I mean like the my phone my Google phone totally messes with the shadows in the light areas to try and balance the picture. It’ll remove wrinkles on your face. So we’re deeply into this world where the pictures that you take are, are the pictures that you want, not the pictures that you took. I think this is where we’re getting to with all this kind of stuff. 

Pamela Gay [00:04:07] I don’t like this. This is not the future I requested. 

Fraser Cain [00:04:11] Which just use a dSLR. Then I do. Perfect. Well, then don’t worry about it. Okay? And then everyone else can use their bold glamor filter on TikTok and their teenage view. The teenage version of themselves. All right, so if you’re in dark skies and you look up, you’re certain to see a satellite. Lots of them. But how can you know which one you’re seeing? And how can you improve your chances of a sighting? Today we’re gonna talk about how to see satellites or avoid seeing them. I, I am ambivalent today. 

Pamela Gay [00:04:45] Because that’s so unlike you. 

Fraser Cain [00:04:48] I know, I know, I have so much joy, so much happiness seeing satellites in my as a child and through. Even now I go outside, I look up, I see a satellite. I’m like, cool. Yeah, space. 

Pamela Gay [00:05:03] Yeah, right. 

Fraser Cain [00:05:03] That’s that could be the enterprise passing over. But then on the other hand, we know this more and more and more of them, and they are going to be making our axis of space harder. 

Pamela Gay [00:05:16] When, when was the last time you went out and just, like, spent a night in either a hammock or a lawn chair or, God forbid, actually lying on the ground where there are spiders and just looking at the sky the entire night. 

Fraser Cain [00:05:30] A couple, a couple of years to do, like the whole night. Like I’ll definitely even now I’ll go outside just. And if it’s clear skies because they’re so rare here, let’s go to Canada this time of year. I go outside and I’m like, oh, it’s clear. And then we’ll go outside and we’ll bundle up and we’ll just watch the sky for as long as we can handle it. But yeah, it’s been a couple of years for just going outside, laying down under the stars. And I usually pass out in a couple of hours though, so I’m not I’m not built for this. 

Pamela Gay [00:05:57] Yeah, I, I lost one out about a year and a half ago. And so, so. The the constellations of satellites were in full swing. We we had Starlink was starting to function and going outside and looking up, trying to see a meteor shower in Illinois was a matter of look. Oh, shoot, because it was either a satellite or a lightning bug. Most of the time. 

Fraser Cain [00:06:30] That we don’t have, that would be awesome. 

Pamela Gay [00:06:34] The lightning bugs were truly awesome, but the satellites initially had the exact same feeling as you, and like one of my most powerful memories of Dark Skies was sitting out on a big old rock at the base of a glacier when I was a high schooler and got to go glacier climbing and just watching satellites. I had never seen them before. And and so this was like what it meant to be someplace truly dark, as you could see, satellites. And now it’s like, No, they’re just they’re they’re just a lot of them there. Right. 

Fraser Cain [00:07:12] So so like describe the experience then if you’re outside, it’s a warm summer night. You’re lying in the hammock, you’re looking up, the sky is clear, the mosquitoes are strangely absent. You are. 

Pamela Gay [00:07:25] Just enjoying going. 

Fraser Cain [00:07:26] To happen. I know, I know, you’re just enjoying the night sky. What? And you notice the satellite? What? What will you see in the sky? 

Pamela Gay [00:07:37] In general, most satellites that you’re able to see are like some of the fainter stars, and it looks like a tiny star is is moving across the sky. And one of the fascinating things is close to twilight will make it horizon to horizon. But as it gets later and later, you can start to tell when they’re entering the shadow of the earth because they’ll be going along, going along no more. And and so there’s that. First of all, you have to ask yourself, is it a plane? And the speeds and the solidness of the color, or the fact that it’s blinking from white to not to white tonight? Yeah. 

Fraser Cain [00:08:20] You see the blinking green light, if that’s. 

Pamela Gay [00:08:23] An airplane, if it’s. 

Fraser Cain [00:08:24] An airplane, any kind of blinking light that tells you this is an airplane. 

Pamela Gay [00:08:29] And with the satellites, it’s going to be sunlight getting reflected back to you. So occasionally there’ll be a tumbling satellite and I. Those you will see variations in brightness, but it’s still the color of the sun light getting reflected back to you the entire time. Now that going across the sky and turning off. One of the fascinating things is if you’re out there and you’re just taking in the entire sky, you can actually tell the different satellites are at different orbits, because the ones that are in lower orbits will start hitting the shadow earlier than the ones that are in higher orbits. And if something’s in a large enough orbit, it’s not going to actually land itself into the shadow of the Earth. And so you can continue watching it throughout the night. 

Fraser Cain [00:09:20] Well, that sort of led into what was going to be my next question, which is like, if you are seeing satellites go overhead, what can you learn just by observing? 

Pamela Gay [00:09:31] So a whole lot. The first thing is we make a certain amount of assumption of how big the satellite is based on how much light it’s reflecting back. And this isn’t perfect. Some satellites are much shinier than others. Something that is covered in solar cells. The solar cells are designed to absorb sunlight, not reflect it. But to a certain degree, based on how bright it is, you can get an estimate of how large it is based on how fast it’s moving across the sky. You can start to make assumptions about what orbits and, that can get confirmed again by when it does or doesn’t hit the shadow of the earth. And you can tell if it’s rotating or not. Assuming it isn’t. Symmetric and symmetrically covered in things based on how it varies in brightness as it goes. 

Fraser Cain [00:10:29] Right. So like that varying a brightness. I mean, there are ones that you really need dark skies, but if you’re in light polluted territory, like many of the people who are listening to this. Yeah. What can you see? 

Pamela Gay [00:10:45] The International Space Station is only about 400km up and it is pretty darn big. It’s something that you can actually resolve into a space station with a middling sized telescope. 

Fraser Cain [00:10:59] Even binoculars. Yeah, with a good pair of binoculars, you can see the little Tie fighter shape to the space station. 

Pamela Gay [00:11:06] So? So the space station’s it’s big, it’s low down. It’s reflecting a ton of light. That is something you can see fairly easily. The, Hubble Space Telescope is actually not that hard to see. It’s a little bit higher up and a whole lot tinier. But, there are really good predictions for it. And it’s it’s shiny. It’s reflective. Basically. 

Fraser Cain [00:11:29] One of the most exciting things that you can do with this is if, you know, there’s a launch of Soyuz or Crew Dragon or, you know, one of these Cygnus capsule, you can go out when the if, if you’re lucky and you’re going to get the fly over on your territory, you know, then you can look out with binoculars and watch as it flies overhead. And you can see the little dot chasing the big bright dot. You can actually see that the spacecraft is docking in space above your head. 

Pamela Gay [00:12:02] If you are in just the right place, you can get multiple passes in one night, and that allows you to see the dots getting closer and closer, orbit after orbit. 

Fraser Cain [00:12:12] And that’s me. So where I live in Canada during the summer, the the sunlight does sort of illuminate the lower the low Earth orbit for the longer time. Yeah. And so I can get three passes of the International Space Station in, in over the course of, of an hour and a half. No, three hours. So you get one and then 90 minutes later you get another 1 in 90 minutes. 45 minutes. 

Pamela Gay [00:12:40] Finish. 

Fraser Cain [00:12:41] Yeah. And then and then you get another one. So you get these three passes and and I’ve never done, I’ve never seen it while there’s a spacecraft catching it. But it’s quite amazing to be able to go outside and and see. So then let’s talk about like this is all random happenstance. 

Pamela Gay [00:12:59] Yeah. 

Fraser Cain [00:12:59] So how do we improve our chances of of spotting a satellite or even certainly find the spotlight as a spotlight and spotting a satellite or finding a specific satellite that we want to see. 

Pamela Gay [00:13:14] What do we do? So the the most straightforward thing to do, and it is designed for absolutely anyone to be able to use it, is to go to the Heavens Above website. And they list prominent well known satellites who tell it where you are. It can tell you when you’ll be able to see what passes, and it’s really kind of a gateway drug to being a satellite spotter. And it really doesn’t get more simple than what Heavens Above allows you to do. Now you can get as trickster as you want, however, and there is satellite. Parsing software in a lot of planetarium software. Now that allows you to go out and you can see what tracks are going ahead as you’re looking at your planetarium software, and if you have the right kind of telescope mount, you can chase the suckers down. 

Fraser Cain [00:14:13] Right? Yeah. So yeah, one of my favorite things to do, and I’ve only and I see that, but I’ve only done this once successfully. Is you can go to websites that will let you predict the location of the International Space Station for when it’s going to pass in front of the sun or the moon. 

Pamela Gay [00:14:31] Yes. 

Fraser Cain [00:14:32] And so you go out to the place and it will tell you where you have to be. So it’s a very small area nearby you. And so off. It’ll recommend some locations you can go within, say 100km. And then you go to this exact location at this exact time, and then you record and a video of the moon. And then you have because because the station can be in shadow and invisible. And so you won’t see the space station fly overhead, you just record your image of the moon, and then you go back and you look at the videos that you made and you blow them up and boom, there goes the space station passing in front of the moon at the exact appointed time, which is just incredible. 

Pamela Gay [00:15:15] And there’s some folks out there Andrew McCarthy comes to mind who are doing amazing work, getting themselves to the right place and using high end equipment to capture these alignments. And poor Andrew is so good at it that he occasionally gets trolls coming after him, saying that it can’t be real and the rate at which things are moving across the moon. Does it make sense? And no, it’s just that good. 

Fraser Cain [00:15:43] Yeah, yeah. My my favorite guy named Terry Legault. He’s in France. Yeah. And and you could. He’s taking pictures that are so good. You can see the astronauts doing a spacewalk on the outside of the International Space Station. Wow. It’s crazy. So what about Starlink? Let’s say, you know, you’ve heard that the Starlink speaker trail. How do you see those? 

Pamela Gay [00:16:07] So it depends on on how recently they’ve launched the. This is going to sound more complicated, but it always, always works. So there are certain websites that you can go to. And they have catalogs of all the satellites that are out there. Celeste Track is one of the ones that that is particularly savvy about having absolutely everything. And NASA provides all the calculators you need to get the observational ephemeris. So you go to Celeste Track, you get what’s called a two line element, which is just the way people share satellite information back and forth. It’s super compact, not meant for human brains, right? But then JPL has software that will take in these two line elements, turn them into ephemeris, and tell you exactly where in the sky at what time you can find these different objects. A lot of times, amateur astronomers will be out there being like, okay, folks, let’s go see this. But there that I have found, there isn’t any one place. It’s like, okay, type in your location and we will tell you exactly when to see every different Starlink trail. But Sluss track is a good base. 

Fraser Cain [00:17:33] Yeah, yeah. So Let’s Track is terrific. I highly recommend it as well. That in heavens above you. Yeah. You need like, you can only see the Starlink for a few days after they launch with your eyes. So they. Yes, they start out with the launch and they start a fairly low altitude. And then they are slowly raising their altitude. And they’re in this terrain. And you’ll have 60 little dots in this line. And over time they’re getting farther and farther apart from each other. And then eventually they all dim as they get higher and they get into their final operational altitude, but also their final orientation. So when they’re still raising their altitude, they’re they’re quite bright and then they fade away. So, you know, people are always worried about whether or not, like, starlings are just going to turn the sky into this grid of little dots. And that is not. 

Pamela Gay [00:18:24] Depends on if you’re using a telescope or. 

Fraser Cain [00:18:26] Not. Yeah. No. Well, just look with your eyes like you walk outside, you look up, you won’t see any star links. 

Pamela Gay [00:18:31] Yeah. So go to the lost track type in the satellite that you’re interested in. Go to JPL horizons. Get the ephemeris. 

Fraser Cain [00:18:40] Yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:18:41] And just go chase. 

Fraser Cain [00:18:42] Yeah, yeah. And it is. It is a lot of fun. And this is why I feel this ambivalence. Because, yes, these are human created light pollution that is going across the sky. But it is really cool to see things that human beings have created and to see them in space and to feel this connection that all the way back to Eureka Garden and and Sputnik and the Apollo missions and all this kind of stuff, you’re seeing humanity’s becoming a spacefaring civilization. Just just like that. 

Pamela Gay [00:19:21] The starlings have an entire story in them, because when those trains get launched, they’re they’re, as you pointed out, they’re launched in the lower orbit. This way, if any of them are dead, they just fall back to Earth. You know, space junk. That is amazing. They then have these ion engines that moves so very slowly tie fighters out at wrong. And and so they’re they’re slowly, slowly using particles to boost their orbit, which is an entire other story. And so we’re seeing things get launched into a safe orbit and then getting moved into a functional orbit where hopefully the atmosphere won’t destroy them too often. And that’s something neat to get to share with other humans. 

Fraser Cain [00:20:11] Yeah, yeah, yeah. It’s it’s it’s a fun thing to kind of organize like both the space station or the Starlink trails. I mean, I wish there were better tools out there to notify you. There are some for sure. Yeah. Like you can get a notification when the start the space station is going to make a flight overhead. 

Pamela Gay [00:20:27] Yeah. Like the station from NASA is one that helps. 

Fraser Cain [00:20:30] Yeah. And they’ll send you like a text message. You’ve got like the station. It’s going to make a fly over your area in ten minutes. Go outside and you’re like okay. And then there it is. It’s a great party trick. There was an even better party trick, which was the iridium satellites. Did you ever. 

Pamela Gay [00:20:45] Yeah. 

Fraser Cain [00:20:46] Chase iridium. 

Pamela Gay [00:20:46] Flares. Yes. Those were fabulous. Especially, as you could see them, dawn and dusk occasionally. And there would be this flash brighter than Venus has ever been. If Venus got that bright, we’d be in trouble, and and it would flash and then fade, and. As as the angle that the sunlight was coming at. You changed. The original iridium satellites were problematic, is the word I’m going to choose to use. And and we’re not going to go into there abuse of of, bandwidth, but. They were cool had they had this amazingly reflective surface and they’d flare up and fade away. And it wasn’t that constant streak. It was this flare that was magnificent. 

Fraser Cain [00:21:40] I would say, you know, when the those that first generation iridium satellites were operating, I would say half of the what did I see in the sky emails that I would guess were explained by iridium satellites. And the thing that’s incredible about them is that you could predict when they were going to flare. And so you could say, okay, look over there, get ready. 

Pamela Gay [00:22:00] It was a party trick. 

Fraser Cain [00:22:01] Yeah, there’s the flare. And people are like, whoa. So, but the but the net, the first generation network is is long gone. Now satellites are gone. So that party trick is over. Now you’ve only got the Starlink trails and the International Space Station. All right. So the title of the subject of this episode is How to See Satellites, but also how to avoid them. How do we avoid seeing satellites? 

Pamela Gay [00:22:27] It’s it’s getting harder and harder. And I, I regret to say that it’s starting to become a software problem. 

Fraser Cain [00:22:36] Right. 

Pamela Gay [00:22:37] Yeah. So there are currently satellites crossing the sky in almost every direction, not literally every direction, because going against the rotation of the planet kind of is hard to get into. Even if you have space debris. But, we have polar orbits. We have all manner of inclination between 0 and 90. So you have things going around the equator and around the poles and everywhere in between. Now, luckily, once you start looking away from the equator late at night, the probability you’re going to have things, especially in the winter, goes down, down, down. Because, things aren’t going to be as much in the sunlight. They’re going to be in the shadow of the Earth. And we luckily don’t put things in really large, highly inclined orbits. So since they’re closer to the planet generally not always there, there’s Russian communication satellites and things like that. The Malenko orbits will screw you up, but other than that, so. 

Fraser Cain [00:23:56] So the thing that we mentioned as the way to see satellites go during the time when you’re when your nights are the shortest and you’re dawn and dusk are the longest to see satellites, so do the opposite and go out at the time when the when the night is the longest and the dawn and the dusk are the shortest, which for us in the northern hemisphere means winter time. You know, December 21st is going to be the, the shortest, the longest night, the shortest day, and and also the coldest. So, so it’s sort of bad. But I mean, no matter where you go. 

Pamela Gay [00:24:35] And look away from the equator. 

Fraser Cain [00:24:37] And look away from the equator. So you’re so to maximize your chance of not having any satellites in the sky is to see during the winter time on the the the longest night, you can’t and then the time. So you most likely see these the satellites at dawn and dusk. So avoid dawn and dusk. Go observe deep into astronomical night. So, like, when would you start? Like if you if you want to guarantee it’s it’s December 21st and you want to make sure that you don’t see any any satellite trails, when would you when would you open up the the light year telescope? 

Pamela Gay [00:25:17] Oh, man. I would want to go as far north as I could while still having good weather in December, which is an interesting set of variables. And. Probably three hours after sunset, so well after astronomical twilight, just because that will get rid of all the lower orbits. 

Fraser Cain [00:25:43] Would get dark for you at night at six, start observing at nine. 

Pamela Gay [00:25:49] Yeah. And it’s frustrating. And this is where I think that isn’t always going to be practical. We can’t throw away that much of the night if we’re trying to do science. So what you end up doing is where you might have taken ten images of a target in the past and stacked them together into your image. Now you’re going to be taking 13 or 14, so that all those satellite streaks that are cutting through your image are something that you can get rid of. And one of the annoying things is, while all of this works for optical telescopes, infrared telescopes. Are are going to be coerced because infrared. You can still see because the satellites are warm, right? 

Fraser Cain [00:26:39] They’re warmed up by the sun. And so they pass through your field of view. And I mean, I think people who are listening to this are burning, like isn’t there software that you can use? And the answer is absolutely you can. As an amateur astrophotographer. The problem of removing artifacts from your pictures is is as old as the as the hobby. Yeah. Removing airplane trails, removing satellite trails you throw at the frame that has the picture in it. 

Pamela Gay [00:27:10] You don’t even throw out the whole frame. So. So you throw out the pixels. What you do is called min max rejection or and that’s just one of the equations. There’s lots of different ways, but min max is the easiest one to explain. And it’s super effective for this. Basically you say okay, I took 15 images. I am going to get rid of the five brightest no matter what for a given pixel. So you do this on a pixel by pixel basis. I get rid of however many on the low end makes sense for your particular detector. And then I combine everything in the middle. And what this does is it gets rid of your cosmic rays because they’re going to vary from pixel to pixel. Each time it gets rid of your satellites. 

Fraser Cain [00:27:52] There are cosmic rays going through your picture anyway. 

Pamela Gay [00:27:56] Yeah, yeah, yeah. 

Fraser Cain [00:27:56] So cool. But yeah. But also they’re annoying. 

Pamela Gay [00:27:59] They’re super annoying. Especially the glancing blow ones because, yeah, they look more like lightning. 

Fraser Cain [00:28:05] Yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:28:07] So yeah. Min max rejection. 

Fraser Cain [00:28:09] Right? Right. So. So the point is, algorithmically, you can run your astrophotography through these algorithms. You can remove the star trails, the plane trails, if that’s what you want, or make a fun picture that shows all of the trails all the same time to leave, you know, leave those in and you can see just how much they’re crossing your pictures. It is it is a minor annoyance and it’s getting a little bit worse, but it is not causing a lot of damage to the work of Astrophotographers. But the where the area is significant is in the for the work of actual professional astronomers. And yeah, you know, you have limited time on the on this really powerful telescope. You’re taking a picture of this specific galaxy. You need a very, you know, very long exposure image to get the spectroscopic data. You look you you you were only able to take ten images of the galaxy, and one of them has a giant satellite trail going right through it. It you have throw it out. It’s worthless. 

Pamela Gay [00:29:13] There are maths that are saying that it’s going to increase the amount of observing time needed on a target from several percent to 10% ish. 

Fraser Cain [00:29:26] Yeah, yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:29:27] And that’s a lot that that means potentially several percent to 10% less science completed. 

Fraser Cain [00:29:35] Right. And the halfway solution is back to the thing you mentioned earlier on, which is ephemeris. Like right now, there’s no rules and regulations about launching the satellites as with respect to astronomers. And there’s no requirement for the satellite operators to tell astronomers where their satellites are so that they can organize their observations around it. There was a paper that I read where they said that you could remove almost all of the effect of the satellite of the satellites in astronomical images from, from a trailing standpoint, not the sky. So that’s a whole other issue by providing really accurate locations and orbits of the satellite. And so the astronomer knows, okay, don’t take the picture for one second, wait one second before taking the picture, and the satellite will have moved away from the object that I’m observing. And then take the picture. 

Pamela Gay [00:30:35] And it’s it’s going to become a hot mess at some point where you have algorithms set up. So, you know, I can do 90s pause, do 100 and 20s pause. And so you’re trying to. Figure it out. 

Fraser Cain [00:30:56] Yeah. And look, the satellite and this is this is my. You know, people always have this. What I think is a fairly emotional reaction to the existence of the satellite and, and for me, like, the thing that should have happened was the satellite operators and the astronomers got together and they came up with a set of rules for how to minimize the impact on science. And that conversation was never had. 

Pamela Gay [00:31:22] No. 

Fraser Cain [00:31:23] End. And the astronomers could have had a voice and could have had these, could have put in a bunch of recommendations that the government could have then made the satellite operators adhere to, and we would be in a place where we would still have almost the same amount of high speed communications around the Earth, and the astronomers would be able to get almost the same amount of the science that they’re doing today. And and that ever happened, which makes me frustrated. 

Pamela Gay [00:31:52] Yeah, we were both at the 2020 meeting, which was right after Starlink had started putting up trains. And the outrage was palpable because we just didn’t see it coming. 

Fraser Cain [00:32:06] And yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:32:08] Radio astronomy has has worked hard to try and get service providers to shut off their, broadcasts well over various radio sites, radio astronomy sites. But with optical telescopes, we can’t turn off the sun’s reflection as readily. Right. So we’re kind of stuck. 

Fraser Cain [00:32:32] Yeah, yeah, 100%. Anyway, it’s a you know, obviously it’s an ongoing issue and I’m sure we’ll be reporting on it when we get to the final 30,000 satellites in various constellations and so on. Like it will be an unfolding issue. But there is no putting this horse back in the barn. 

Pamela Gay [00:32:51] Genie, back in the. 

Fraser Cain [00:32:52] Back in the bottle. We are we are proceeding into this new world with tens of thousands of low-Earth orbit satellites, at the same time trying to do science from the ground. Yeah. Thank you, Pamela. 

Pamela Gay [00:33:04] And thank you, Fraser, and thank you so much to everyone out in our audience who supports us through Patreon. I wish we could thank all of you, but we can’t. But this week I’m going to thank at least some of you. So thank you to Scott Cohn, Kimberly, Kimberly Riach, Daniel Loosely, Marco Irsay, Matthew horstman DFM, Jeff Wilson, Gregory singleton, Philip Walker, Tim garage, Matthias Hayden, Claudia mastroianni, Justin Proctor, Tim mcmeekin, Cancellara. Kim. Glencoe. Disaster. Gina. Cooper. Veronica. Cure, Benjamin. Mueller, Omar. Del. Riviera. Jay. Alex. Alex. Anderson, Aaron. Zegras, Kenneth. Ryan, Don. Mendez, Michelle. Cullen, Dean. McDaniel, Paul. De. Disney, Scott. Briggs, Ninja neck. Share some, Michael Regan, Peter Matt Rucker, Jim McGeehan, Frodo. Tannenbaum, father Prax, Brant. Crump, Philip Grand and a saurus. Bruce. Amazon, Mark. Steven. Resnick, Abraham. Cottrell, Dwight and Semansky. Thank you all. 

Fraser Cain [00:34:22] Thanks, everyone. See you next week. 
Pamela Gay [00:34:24] See you. Bye bye. Astronomy cast is a joint product of Universe Today and the Planetary Science Institute. Astronomy cast is released under a Creative Commons Attribution license. So love it, share it, and remix it, but please credit it to our hosts, Fraser Cain and Doctor Pamela Gay. You can get more information on today’s show topic on our website. Astronomy. Cars.com. This episode was brought to you thanks to our generous patrons on Patreon. If you want to help keep the show going, please consider joining our community at Patreon.com Slash Astronomy Cast. Not only do you help us pay our producers a fair wage, you will also get special access to content right in your inbox and invites to online events. We are so grateful to all of you who have joined our Patreon community already. Anyways, keep looking up. This has been Astronomy Cast.

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