Ep. 699: Holiday Gift Giving Ideas for Astronomy and Space Fans

Just a warning, the holidays are rapidly approaching. It’s time, once again, to think about what to buy all the space nerds on your lists. Here’s what we like.


(This is an automatically generated transcript)

Frasier Cain [00:01:50] Astronomy cast. Episode 699. Our holiday gift guide. Welcome. Just trying to be cast for a weekly, fact based journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know, but how we know what we know. I’m Fraser Cain, I’m the publisher of Universe Today. With me, as always, is Doctor Pamela Gay, a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the director of Cosmic Quest. Hey, panel, how you doing? 

Pamela Gay [00:02:10] I’m doing well, but I have to admit, I am not emotionally prepared for this episode. My Halloween decorations are still in the yard. I have not done my grocery shopping. It is still September in my head, right? Good lord. How did we get here? 

Frasier Cain [00:02:31] Yeah, yeah. I mean, one time marches inexorably on. Also, you know, we are getting ahead of, you know, we were recording this show. It won’t show up for another week. That’ll be like just after your Thanksgiving. And I feel like after you finish your Thanksgiving, that is the moment where in your mind, Christmas and the holiday season starts to loom large. So I think the timing is off. Yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:02:56] Yeah. Saturday is making tamales out of leftovers and putting up Christmas decorations. 

Frasier Cain [00:03:02] That sounds good. Now I need to warn people I’m not in my typical studio. I’m on the road. I’m recording with less wonderful recording equipment, so. But hopefully it still sounds okay. 

Pamela Gay [00:03:13] You still say. 

Frasier Cain [00:03:14] Good? Yeah. And it’ll be. I’m using a cool gadget. I’m using a DGI, microphone system, and I. I really like it, actually. Very simple. And I’ll be here for the next four weeks, so just I apologize in advance. But this is going to be my reality right now. Hopefully it’s not too bad. So just a warning. The holidays are rapidly approaching. It’s time once again to think about what to buy all the space nerds on your list. Here’s what we like. All right, we do this every year, but, like, things always remain the same as well. So do we want to talk about the things that will always remain the same, or we won’t talk about the things that are new that we like. 

Pamela Gay [00:03:57] So I, I decided to add things like board games this year. And there are a bunch of new books, not all of which I have read, but many of which are on the list today because I want someone to buy them for me. 

Frasier Cain [00:04:15] Oh, right. Wait a minute. Is that what today is? Today is a holiday list for Pamela. 

Pamela Gay [00:04:22] Well, at least with with a couple of the very few, very few things, but. Okay. Does it happen? 

Frasier Cain [00:04:29] Yeah. All right. Well, let’s let’s just start. I mean, where do you want to go for games? You want to start with, with, books. Movies? Gear. 

Pamela Gay [00:04:39] Let’s do fourth gear, because let’s just get that out of the way and, and go through what we need to. 

Frasier Cain [00:04:46] Okay? So if you have a person in your life that is wanting to get into astronomy. What do we always recommend as the first piece of reasonably inexpensive kit that you should acquire. 

Pamela Gay [00:05:04] But not you learn spar killers? 

Frasier Cain [00:05:07] Yeah. Why? Do you have any opinion? I guess there’s like three classes of this, right? There’s, like, nice small traveling binoculars. Yeah, good astronomical binoculars. And then there is the Cadillac of binoculars. So, so we’ll start with the traveling ones. You know, like, any binoculars work great. You want know binoculars. And you’re looking for those two numbers eight times 35, seven times 35. 

Pamela Gay [00:05:41] And by 50. 

Frasier Cain [00:05:42] Ten by 50. Ideally, maximize the second number. And don’t be so concerned about the first number. The first number is the magnification. So it’s like seven times it’s eight times it’s ten times. Don’t worry about it. It doesn’t matter. The second number though is the size of the eyepiece in or the size of the aperture in millimeters. 

Pamela Gay [00:06:05] Light gathering. 

Frasier Cain [00:06:07] And that’s the amount of light that is getting gathered. The more light that you gather, the fainter the object you’re going to be able to see. You want that number to be bigger. So but they’re all kind of the same. So eight by seven by 30 fives, eight by 50, ten by 50. Whatever is like a nice size and small. Yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:06:26] Yeah. What I usually look for is a field of view. That’s a couple of degrees because that makes star hopping super easy. And then maximize the, the, size of the front end as big as I can afford. First, don’t buy something you can’t afford. And second, as big as I can hold steady with my hands right there. There are times when it’s amazing to have giant binoculars that require a tripod, or require you to be laying down, and like, balancing them with your elbows on the ground. But most of the time, you just want something that you can carry out into your backyard and just look up while in a hammock. 

Frasier Cain [00:07:14] And you shouldn’t be spending more than 50 bucks for this. Like they’re reasonably inexpensive. But if you want to spend more on a pair of binoculars and you do want that one, that’s going to give you a better view, then you want to go to the astronomical binoculars. And those will have numbers like 25 times 75, 15 by 75 or 25 times by 100. And so 100 millimeter, 75 millimeter lenses with higher magnification. And they’re amazing. Like they’re. Yes. You fall into the sky. It’s the power is incredible. But they’re heavy. 

Pamela Gay [00:07:51] Yeah. Yeah. It’s it’s a it’s a good way to figure out whether or not you have small muscle trembles and build up your, ability to rate things in that like bucket at arm’s length challenge. That’s what giant binoculars are. 

Frasier Cain [00:08:07] And if you are willing, you know, if you’ve got like a nice spot that you can sit layback and you’ve got some, some tripod that can hold them, but they come with a tripod holder often or you know, they have a tripod mount. Yeah, put on a tripod and then yeah use them and you don’t have to hold them and jiggle them. But the Cadillac of these are the image stabilizing binoculars. 

Pamela Gay [00:08:30] Yes. These you’re you’re looking sometimes upwards of $1,000. But the nice thing about them is some of the fanciest ones can even snap images inside of their electronics, which is kind of wild. Whoa. But yeah. Yeah, but you can. You can be in a windy circumstance. You can be on a boat. They tolerate all sorts of weird environmental issues and just regular everyday my hands shake. No big deal. And allow your eyes to just take in those photons and show you the nebulae. 

Frasier Cain [00:09:13] And, I mean, we’re a lot more experienced with this kind of thing. Like when you, when you take video with your iPhone or, you know, or you’ve got like a nice little dSLR, it’s got some kind of image stabilization built in. That’s what it’s like. You are. Yeah. You are looking at the sky and then you press the image stabilization button and then the sky just it turns into a photograph in your vision and not but you know, things can be happening. But it is rock solid. And that makes everything. And it’s hard to undersell how wonderful that kind of thing is. But these are expensive. I mean, you’re looking at upwards of a thousand bucks for a pair of image stabilizing binoculars. Even bigger ones can be more expensive, but they are glorious. And so if you really want to impress the pants off of somebody, I highly recommend. You know, if you want to be, if you’ve got something really special to buy for someone who is really going to be into this and they they really will do the heavy lifting. You can look at birds, you can see stuff at night, space. It’s just great. 

Pamela Gay [00:10:20] One of the things you want to look for, if you’re using them for astronomy, is to make sure they have an reflective overcoat. When you’re birding, there’s a whole lot of daylight, so you don’t worry about it. So if you’re buying them and they are designed for birdwatching, they’re not going to be as good at night because they reflect a significant portion of the light that’s hitting those giant apertures and the giant apertures, what good is it? Have a giant aperture if the lens is just going to reflect the light. But those over coatings allow the light to go through the lens instead of getting reflected off of it. 

Frasier Cain [00:10:54] All right. Let’s talk about telescopes okay. 

Pamela Gay [00:10:57] All right. Dobsonian, if you want to use your eyeballs. 

Frasier Cain [00:11:00] Classic answer. 

Pamela Gay [00:11:02] And a simple Schmidt case if you want to start astrophotography. 

Frasier Cain [00:11:10] I’m going to replace that recommendation. 

Pamela Gay [00:11:12] Really? 

Frasier Cain [00:11:13] Yeah, yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:11:14] So are you going to, like a unique Stella or something? Yeah. 

Frasier Cain [00:11:17] Yeah. So I’m 100% can agree with you. Like, if you want to get into astronomy, you don’t want to spend too much money. You want a nice light bucket, you want a dobsonian get a six inch or an eight inch six. You just fine. Eight inches. Yeah, right. Ten inches too much. Don’t be tempted to go bigger. 

Pamela Gay [00:11:36] It’s too hard to move. So you want to use it? 

Frasier Cain [00:11:39] Yep. And it’s simple. Easy to use with a nice finder. Once you learn the sky, you can look around very quickly and find what you’re looking for. I would have agreed with you for that. Like the next step with a with an automatic, like with the with the Schmidt cast. With a. You know, with a camera on board. Take pictures. Yeah, yeah, but I don’t recommend that anymore. Because they are still very complicated to use. They do different images, but the polar alignment on them is just takes so long. And at the end of the day, you’re not looking to spend the $10,000. You’re going to spend a few thousand dollars to get that set up, and it’s going to not be good enough for what you want. And so I think if you’re going to want them, if it’s not good enough for what you want as well, I recommend these automated telescopes. So, both unit and Venus make these. They are. You know, I’m not going to lie. They’re 3 to $4000. But they are idiot proof. You take this thing outside, you’ve set it down with a clear view. The night sky. You turn it on, it finds its way around the sky, recognizes where it is. And then you just say, let’s take pictures of Andromeda and just turns to Andromeda and just start taking pictures. And it’s magical. 

Pamela Gay [00:12:59] I will add the caveat that I tried using one of the Venus ones, that that I had to do reviews, and it was so bitterly cold here that the telescope was like, I shall not. 

Frasier Cain [00:13:14] Write. 

Pamela Gay [00:13:14] I will not. 

Frasier Cain [00:13:15] I’m not sure if they sort of what the temperature ranges are, but. 

Pamela Gay [00:13:21] Minus ten was not right. 

Frasier Cain [00:13:25] That seems really civilize, right. Because you think you put it outside, you get back inside and then you’re just controlling it with your phone and you’re taking pictures. 

Pamela Gay [00:13:32] Well, and that’s what I tried to do. And it said, no, I’m not going to write. So, so just have the caveat that in my personal experience with them, they prefer to be warmer than not. 

Frasier Cain [00:13:45] Right. Well, we don’t know. I mean, who knows? I could have been that model. Could have been the battery. Who knows? 

Pamela Gay [00:13:50] And batteries in general don’t like being minus ten. Yeah. And they are battery driven. 

Frasier Cain [00:13:55] Yep. And so just, you know, you see, like the camera, the best camera is the one you’re going to use. 

Pamela Gay [00:14:01] Yeah. Like, if you’ve. 

Frasier Cain [00:14:02] Ever if you’ve had any kind of telescope that has a, a automated drive on it and you go outside and you tell your friends, oh, Jupiter is up, let’s go look at Jupiter. And then you’re just a second, I just did wait a second. I can’t seem to get it into. Hold on a minute. And then, you know, your friends are packing up their cars. They’re going home. You wait just a second, and then finally, three hours later, you finally polar aligned it like it’s. If you know what you’re doing and really comfortable. The telescope is in a place where you know and you’ve gone through the the polar alignment process hundreds of times and sure, yeah, go that route. 

Pamela Gay [00:14:39] Or you don’t care. I will often carry my refractor out to the sidewalk to show things to my neighbor’s kids. Yeah, no polar alignment meant I am using a 20 millimeter plus a lens, a big field of view point the telescope, and I just constantly adjust it. 

Frasier Cain [00:14:56] And that’s your dobsonian like, that’s what the dobsonian will get you. 

Pamela Gay [00:15:00] Well, and that’s and it just happens to be I have the refractor. So yeah, I’m treating my refractor like a dobsonian. 

Frasier Cain [00:15:08] Right. Exactly. So if you, if you want the really quick, let’s see what’s up in the sky. Oh look, the moon looks really nice tonight. That’s your dobsonian. If you want it to start getting into astrophotography. And I say start because it is the beginning of the rabbit hole, then these automated telescopes are great, but you know, and we’re not going to make this sort of holiday recommendation for you to go out and spend $10,000 in a proper oh, no geography rig, but you will get to a point where that’s the kind of gear that you’re going to want to buy, to do the kind of astrophotography that you’ve become accustomed to seeing. And so what these automated telescopes do is they get you there fast. And I and I think that’s worth so much. And so if you if you’re the kind of person that wants to get into astrophotography, you don’t want a lot of time to mess around and you want to just get results. These things are there. 

Pamela Gay [00:16:01] And and you know, stellar has a super cool collaboration with the Study Institute to do a variety of citizen science projects. 

Frasier Cain [00:16:09] Yeah, you can do science with these telescopes. Yeah. Great. It’s so cool. Yep. All right. So now we’ll move into where you want to go now to games. You want to go books. You want to go. What do you want. 

Pamela Gay [00:16:21] I want to start by recommending a truly silly, makes you think and not entirely scientific game, but it’s simply a pure delight to play. And this game is called abduction eight. Abduction, as in little rubber duckies. And the idea is that you are a scientist developing technology to travel through space. And your test subjects are these ducks that do not get hurt during the process. And your goal is. To get your ducks to align into different configurations, including, like the constellation Cassiopeia, Orion’s belt, it is a delight. It’s a pattern matching game that requires a fair amount of strategy, but it is also luck based because you have a silicon UFO that all the little rubber duckies go in and you pull the pieces out and you don’t know what you’re going to get, and you have to align them by colors and patterns on the cosmic flow stream. 

Frasier Cain [00:17:30] And this is a physical board game. 

Pamela Gay [00:17:32] It’s a physical board game. It is truly delightful. And you’re playing with little tiny rubber ducks and a UFO. 

Frasier Cain [00:17:40] Oh, that’s super fun. 

Pamela Gay [00:17:41] Amazing. It’s amazing. They are not a sponsor of the show. They could be. 

Frasier Cain [00:17:45] Nothing. Nothing is the sponsor of the show that we’re talking about today. Apart from what? If there’s a sponsorship message and then. Thank you. Sponsor. 

Pamela Gay [00:17:53] Right, right. But that’s not part of the gift guide. No, I. 

Frasier Cain [00:17:57] Haven’t played board games in a long time now. So I’m going to put my emphasis on on video games. And before we get into that, I just want to reiterate how much I love the Steam Deck, which is the yes the Co I’ve got one here. You always with me. 

Pamela Gay [00:18:14] On straight above me through the ceiling. 

Frasier Cain [00:18:17] Yeah okay. All right. Drill a big hole to bring it down. Like, the Steam Deck has just been a revolutionary device for me because I just have. I have so many games in my backlog that I just never got to. Because, like, I’ve got to sit down in front of my computer, and. Yeah, and I do that all day. I don’t want to sit in front of my computer for one second longer, but I want a game. And so with the Steam Deck, my entire steam library is available, and I could just sit on the couch. I can sit on, you know, I can lie on the bed and I can play games and and I haven’t found a game so far that doesn’t adapt nicely once you get a little used to it, suddenly you’re. I’ve been playing Rimworld now and it’s the best. And I was totally against it. And now it’s working on the Steam Deck. Just great. 

Pamela Gay [00:19:04] So so you you don’t have to simply obsess over figuring out how to reconfigure everything to work on the stream deck, because you can easily attach a dongle for USB and mouse. So like, I have completely used adaptive commands for things like Carcassonne, but for Minecraft where like my brain is fully of the belief that you should be doing certain things with a trackpad and keyboard. I just use those. It’s fine. 

Frasier Cain [00:19:36] I think you would be surprised how if you just toughed through the controls on the Steam Deck for a little while, it’ll start to make sense, and suddenly you won’t want to go back to a mouse and keyboard. Like it’s a bunch of stuff that I’ve been like. I’ve been playing. As I said, I’ve been playing Rimworld. That is just the quintessential mouse keyboard game with Cod keys and all this kind of stuff. I’ve been playing stellaris, which again is just a really complicated game, and yet I’m able to play it with the with the Steam Deck and then stuff that you see that is a lot more straightforward then it’s effortless. And, and if you just like, you feel guilty about a large backlog of video games and you want to get through them, get a Steam Deck. And, you know, I bought both of my kids a Steam Deck for their Christmas and birthday presents, which is sort of breaking the rule, but that’s the one I gave was I gave a Steam Deck to each kid. 

Pamela Gay [00:20:31] That. 

Frasier Cain [00:20:31] Will not be on sale this summer. And so I bought them. And then I set them aside. And then I couldn’t wait till their birthdays and Christmas. And so I was like, here’s your birthday and Christmas present, and that’s it. All right. Yeah. And like, I know a lot of people get switches, but like, the games on the switch are the killer. They’re 70 bucks, right? To buy the Nintendo games while on. You probably already have hundreds of games in your steam library. And so that’s why I recommend the Steam Deck. 

Pamela Gay [00:20:58] And, and there’s Steam Deck games that range in price from a couple of bucks to, again, the $70. But steam regularly has sales. You can get things through Humble Bundles. So there’s this level of availability of things that you just don’t have the same way with, with a switch. But other games, shall we look at other games? I for one, I’m going to go for the board games because. 

Frasier Cain [00:21:29] Sure. Yeah, yeah. 

Pamela Gay [00:21:30] So more board games. 

Frasier Cain [00:21:32] Yeah. So what else. 

Pamela Gay [00:21:34] So so the other one that I’m playing, it’s called Space Base. This is a resource gathering game where your goal is to, to well, you’re a Commodore of a space bass and you’re trying to keep everything alive. You’re trying to draft new ships into your fleet. You’re trying to do basically all the. Things you see in a sci fi show, but in the context of a game that is simple enough to play, that you’re not going to spend 30 minutes explaining to everyone at the table how to play the game. You’re just going to sit down and talk through the instructions while you play the first time, and then just keep playing it. And the games are short enough that it’s not like Arkham Horror, where people are like, you disappeared nine hours ago. What happened? Right? You can play a good game for 45 minutes. It’s it’s just a nice turnaround and it’s straightforward. 

Frasier Cain [00:22:31] Yeah. Are the dogs okay? 

Pamela Gay [00:22:35] So sort of. I was hoping the mic didn’t pick up on them. A fire truck went by and when a fire truck goes by, my dogs have to sing with the fire truck. It’s what they. 

Frasier Cain [00:22:46] Do, right? All right, well, I’m going to be talking about video games, so I mentioned this briefly, but I’ve been playing a lot of Rimworld, of course, but I like I think I make that recommendation every year, like I’m up to 1200 hours of playing this game. It’s so good. It’s it is. And I mention this at some point. It is objectively the best video game ever made. And I this is my hill and I will die. But, but, but I’ve also been playing a lot of stellaris. And if you’re a fan of the kind of that classic like Master of Orion two is sort of like the best example of genre galactic civilizations. But stellaris is the paradox version of this game. Paradox makes for a lot of games like, Europa Universalis and and Pong Crusader Kings. So a lot of these are grand strategy games. Yeah. But and so they’ve taken this approach for the classic space game where you’re, you’re settling new worlds and you’re building a fleet and you’re fighting enemy races and you’re having a grand old time. And but they do a great job of in the beginning, they have these weird little story events where you find some mystery on a world or and if you’re willing, you know, each one is has slight risks and really to take those on, you get advantages that start to snowball your empire. And then in the mid stage, there are all of these, ancient civilizations that are round there, other events that start to happen that you have to deal with. And you, you know, that you’ve got to get yourself ready to a position where you’re going to be able to take on this. And then in the end stage of these sort of apocalyptic events where scourge of the Promethean scourge comes in from another galaxy and wipe tries to wipe you out. And just the base game. The problem of paradox games is, like a lot of additional games require a lot of paradox games require a lot of additional parts. But I would say with this, you really don’t need any of the additional expansions. The base game itself is is delightful and fun, so still highly recommend it. 

Pamela Gay [00:24:58] Well, I’m I’m going to wander back to, board games because. Why not? So we don’t. 

Frasier Cain [00:25:07] Just have here board game nerdery. 

Pamela Gay [00:25:10] I’m in a safe space like I’m on my personal wish list of, like, there’s the stuff you do if you win the lottery, like in doll things pay off your house, pay off your student loans. And then there’s the stuff that you know you should only do in limited amounts. But part of my if I win the lottery is to to redo a room in our house with, like the board game bookshelves that are designed to hold the board games and a board game table. And at this point, I would honestly settle for the the rods you can buy to adopt the the Ikea Kallax shelves for board games. I’m that person. I am that person. Yeah, but to recommend games. Astronaut. It’s it’s a game of solar system exploration by Dante Lauretta, who was p.i. Of the OSIRIS-REx mission. Okay. And it’s just cool because it has real science in it, including some of the sadnesses of like having to try and deal with a government shutdown. And as we keep prolonging how long it’s going to be until we shut down the U.S. government again, this game just happens to come to mind. Alongside, astronaut, we also have, well, not associated with the scientists. There is a quest for planet nine. It’s another card game style game where you’re trying to get out and explore a planet that’s been discovered in the outer solar systems. So if if you can’t actually explore, at least buy a board game that allows you to dream. And if you do want that, I’m playing this game for five hours. How did this happen? Experience. Wow. Terraforming Mars and Terraforming Venus are here to fill your evening with very thick instruction books. Once you figure them out, they’re good. But the first time you play it, it will be a journey. You have been warned. 

Frasier Cain [00:27:18] So I wrote a couple of books to recommend. I’ve had a chance to interview. So one is called The Little Book of Aliens, and this is by Adam Frank, and he is one of my favorite researchers, explainers. And he has done a lot of research into astrobiology and wrote up a nice book that sort of encapsulates the entire, sort of field as it stands today. And, you know, where we looking, what are the techniques and so on. And I did an interview with him, but but his book was great. The other one is, Siri on Mars. 

Pamela Gay [00:27:54] Yes, that one’s on my. I want somebody to please get it for me list. 

Frasier Cain [00:27:58] Yeah, yeah. And that’s by Zach and Kelly Smith and and they are great because yeah they started out going like what’s it going to be like to to, you know when we have a base on Mars and we’ll have a base on the moon and, and they’ve realized just how awful and difficult those places are going to be. And it sort of changed their entire perspective. And it’s nice to see a really realistic perspective on what it’s going to take you to actually colonize space, because, you know, science fiction has been linear. It’s filling our minds a lot of nonsense. 

Pamela Gay [00:28:28] It’s true, it’s true. Expanse gets it pretty right. They’re pretty clear on how miserable spaces. But. 

Frasier Cain [00:28:34] Sure. So just how easy it is. And so the last book is called A Space Shuttle Stories, and this is by astronaut Tom Jones, and he interviewed 135, or if you interviewed 130 shuttle astronauts over and was able to get stories about all 135 space shuttle missions. And so there’s like one story for each one of the missions. And so you can you can just get a sense from the people who lived through it, what it was like to to run that mission, run all those missions. And so if you want to learn more about the special space shuttle story. So those are my those are my three fresh space books, which I’ve read and really enjoyed. 

Pamela Gay [00:29:17] Very cool. And and I’m gonna recommend it’s it’s science adjacent. I’m going to recommend, N.K. Jamison’s The fifth season trilogy. Currently, our planet has a whole lot of volcanism going down in places where there’s live cams Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico City, Iceland’s getting ready to go boom and may have gone boom by the time you’re listening to this. All these different volcanoes going on right now, it just felt like the right time for me to give the series a reread. It’s about what goes wrong if we completely destabilize the geophysics of our world, and what it is like to live on a planet that keeps becoming fairly uninhabitable due to volcanism and earthquakes. 

Frasier Cain [00:30:06] And, well, this is like your favorite subject. 

Pamela Gay [00:30:09] Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. I am so, so to stay on, but I’m going to distract the entire audience for one moment. Go on this journey with me. There have been these amazing videos showing how the town of Grenada in Iceland is growing a giant crack across the town. And while it’s always terrible for human homes to be destroyed and for infrastructure that has been paid for to be damaged, one small thing that is bringing me and my. That’s just a good narrative voice in my head, joy is the crack goes through the archeological site of an ancient Viking temple, which means there is a non-zero probability that the eruption will start in an ancient Viking temple. And if you have to have a volcano going off inside of a city and you have to destroy archeological ruins, this is how I want it to happen. 

Frasier Cain [00:31:12] That’s pretty funny. All right, well, hopefully, we’ve given you all a new list of ideas, as well as some classic standards to help, satisfy the the happiness of everyone on your your wish list. Thanks, Campbell. 

Pamela Gay [00:31:29] Thank you, Fraser, and thank you to everyone out in our audience this week. We want to in particular, thank, Scott Briggs, Jim McGeehan, Frodo, Tanner Barr, J Alex Anderson, father Prax Bruce, Amazon planner star Jeff Glenn McDavid, Semansky the ER major John Drake, Nyla Zulu Zeeland, Scott Cohen, Marco Rossi, Georgie Ivanov, the big squish squash David Gates, Scott Bieber, Matthew Horstman, Matthias Hayden, Justin Proctor, Aaron Zegras, Don Mendes, Cooper, Benjamin. Mueller, Peter Philip Grand and Cami Russell. Thank you all so very much. 

Frasier Cain [00:32:20] Thanks everyone. We’ll see you next week. 

Pamela Gay [00:32:21] Bye bye. Astronomy cast is a joint product of Universe Today and the Planetary Science Institute. Astronomy cast is released under a Creative Commons Attribution license. So love it, share it, and remix it, but please credit it to our hosts, Fraser Cain and Doctor Pamela Gay. You can get more information on today’s show topic on our website. AstronomyCast.com. This episode was brought to you. Thanks to our generous patrons on Patreon. If you want to help keep the show going, please consider joining our community at Patreon.com Slash Astronomy Cast. Not only do you help us pay our producers a fair wage, you will also get special access to content right in your inbox and invites to online events. We are so grateful to all of you who have joined our Patreon community already. Anyways, keep looking up. This has been Astronomy Cast.